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Bladder Stones or Vesical Calculus

The formation of minerals in the bladder that builds up to stones are called bladder stones or vesical calculus. 

Small stones may pass through urine, without any treatment, but if the stone is large enough, it does require proper treatment or surgery. If left untreated, it can cause retention of urine or infections related other complications.

Symptoms –

Bladder stones may not show symptoms right away, but if the stones irritate the bladder or cause blockage of urine, these symptoms might occur:

  • Discomfort or pain in the penis for male
  • More regular urination
  • Stop-start flow of urine
  • Starting to urinate takes longer
  • Blood in the urine
  • Cloudy or abnormally dark urine
  • Lower abdominal pain

Risk factors for Bladder stones:

  • Paralysis with Long term catheter in situ
  • Bladder outlet obstruction like prostatic enlargement
  • Few surgeries using Bowel segments like Bladder augmentation surgery (A type of surgery carried out to enlarge the bladder in case of small capacity bladders)
  • Neurogenic bladder

Treatment –

  • Breaking up the bladder stone and removing the fragments- Cystolitholapaxy is a procedure where a urologist inserts a tube with a camera into the urethra (the opening found at the tip of penis or vagina) or percutaneously through key hole incision in Lower abdomen, just above the bladder region. With the help of laser, stones can be broken into fragments and removed from the body