Kidney stones also called renal calculi, nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis are hard deposits of minerals and salts that form in kidneys.
Kidney stone is an endemic disease of India and is common.
Anyone can form a kidney stone; men are often more likely to get compared to women.
Risk factors for kidney stone are:
Types of Kidney Stones
There are several symptoms of Kidney stones or can be asymptomatic.
Symptoms can be
Kidney stones might also cause irreversible kidney damage either partially or completely.
Lab tests (including Kidney function tests) and Imaging (USG/IVP/CT scan) is used to diagnose the location and number of stones
Conservative/Medical Treatment includes Drinking a lot of water to help pass stone(s) and Pain relievers.
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy can be used to break stones in certain situations, depending upon stone size and hardness of stones. Treatment sequel might be formation of scar in the kidney and literature has also mentioned (cause and effect though not conclusively proven) increased incidence of Hypertension and Diabetes being found in such individuals during long term follow-up.
Surgical procedures may require removing or breaking up larger stones and includes standard PCNL/Mini PCNL/Micro Perc/flexible URS or RIRS.